Christopher Alfaro

Professor Kitana Ananda

ENG103

November 24, 2017

 

 

Al Capone.

 

When talking about dark years in the history of the United States it is almost impossible to skip the era of the “Roaring 20s”. It is undeniable that the American culture changed in many different aspects especially in different cities across the country. The City of Chicago was no exception to this. The population was increasing as much as the skyscrapers being built. Immigrants from all over were coming to this city searching for jobs and opportunities. The United States was always a door with “hope” and “prosperity”, but Chicago had something special. It was a city for strong people who weren’t afraid of being out there.This is what infamous criminal mastermind Al Capone was known for and this is why the city was his. He was made for those streets like Bonnie was made for Clyde. Capone’s acts of violence indeed shifted the life of many others and his operations proved the authorities were still a step behind the organized crime groups. Surprisingly people admired the man in the extravagant suits. The citizens of Chicago were in a moment in history ruled by Capone’s organized crime that led to many changes in society. What made Capone so different?

 

Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, to immigrant parents. He had a big family, as he was just one out of nine kids. Life as an Italian immigrant couldn’t be easy. Now being poor had just made everything much harder. Think about it, these are families that had found their way to an unknown country in search of a better life. Not only did these families come to new country, but they also had a new language to learn and also a new culture to familiarize itself with. Tobegin painting a picture:

At the turn of the century more than half of the population of New York City, and most immigrants, lived in tenement houses, narrow, low rise apartment buildings that were usually overcrowded by their land-lords.” (loc.gov).

 

The Italian Americans that came here, often came in big families and lived in very small spaces. Sadly, for many families that were just beginning, this was the most that they could do. Now, this wasn’t the situation for every family and eventually this was seen less and less as the years went on, but it was very common at the start of the period of Italian immigration to the U.S. When it is said that the apartments were tiny and overcrowded, it actually means that. No exaggerations. The conditions many of these people were living in were absolutely insane.

 

The labor was absolutely terrible, for both men and women. Women were actually limited to only working in sweatshops or factories, and some didn’t even work at all! kids worked the streets selling newspapers for an incredibly low salary, if we can even call it that. Like in everyday lives, there are two possible scenarios for a situation. Scenario one: Everything is fine and life is great. Scenario two: Life isn’t as great or at its absolute worst.

 

“Some Italians seized upon entrepreneurial opportunities in their new home.In turn-of-the-century San Francisco, a Neapolitan American named A.P. Giannini began offering small loans to his fellow Italians, going door to door to collect interest. Eventually, Giannini’s operation grew until he was forced to rent an office in the North Beach neighborhood, then to buy a building. Today, Giannini’s Banca D’Italia has become one of the world’s largest financial institutions, the Bank of America” (loc.gov)

 

Does that name ring a bell? That’s something you STILL see today, multiple years later. Of course this is more like Scenario One, where everything ends up working out. He wasn’t the only person to take advantage of what he had in front of him. Unfortunately this wasn’t the reality for many Italian immigrants.

 

“Many Italian immigrants, however, found themselves toiling for low pay in unhealthy work conditions. At the turn of the 20th century, southern Italian immigrants were among the lowest-paid workers in the United States” (loc.gov).

 

Italians spent their days working in factories, delivering things, at docks, or even in mines. Most of the responded to a “Patron” who actually exploited the workers. This probably wasn’t as bad as things can get but it was definitely on its way. The salary was barely enough for their monthly expenses, and unfortunately this led to families kicked out of tenements. The second scenario was the reality of many during this period of time. Maybe Al Capone saw this future ahead of him and it had an effect in the decisions he made later on in his life. As he got older he responded to no Patron, and he was the boss himself.

 

Capone dropped out of school in the sixth grade. At a very young age he tried doing anything he could and started getting involved in street gangs and getting his name out there. Fast forward to Chicago, 1920. Al Capone had arrived to begin leaving his mark of infamy. At the time he arrived at the second largest city in the nation following New York City, after its reconstruction of course. Capone had arrived to this city to work for childhood friend Johnny Torrio. In “Get Capone”, the timing was perfect.

 

“…Things began to turn during the years of World War I. A wave of temperance swept the country. Americans we expected to sober up and sacrifice for their nation. Even Chicago cleaned itself up a little. Saloons were raided. Licenses were revoked. The high-end whores and drug dealers, fearing arrest, quit working in bordellos and dance halls and moved to hotel lobbies, where they could be more discreet” (Eig, 7).

 

Shortly after the occurrences listed above, The Prohibition law was in effect. Capone had arrived just in time to go against everything that the law said, and since the streets were a bit cleaner he was ready to take action. With the levels of alcohol consumption dropping to an all time low because of this law, Capone’s eyes lit up like he had everything solved. His first crime, and the one that started it all: Bootlegging.

 

Capone’s plan to make money was genius. He was determined to give people what they wanted and he was determined to make his fortune off going against the law enforcement. Is this is correct? Absolutely not. He did what he thought he could do best. He used his tools and experience in bars, brothels, and gang activities to his advantage. According to “Get Capone”, the more the city expanded, the more its crimes did. “By 1910, a special commission reported that five thousand full time prostitutes and ten thousand part-timers worked the city, and that, combined, they were responsible for more than 27 million sex acts a year” (Eig, 5). The amount of money made in these illegal activities was unreal. Bad things always seem the most searched for and they are were what sold the most. Chicago was a city that as its streets got emptied, it starved for the crime it once had. Al Capone started his story by feeding it by bits.

 

The story of Al Capone has two sides. One known by all which is filled with hits, attacks, illegal alcohol, etc. The other side of events gave Capone a lot of respect and admiration from the community. In the year 1929 the United States lived its worst times due to the great depression. The country suffered immensely, and the citizens pleaded to the government for help. This caused many people to be out in the streets. There was no money or jobs. The country was inhabitable, because of course the rich stayed rich while the poor and middle class suffered. Al Capone had a soft spot for this. Although he was a wealthy man, he helped out some people who needed it. During these very difficult years, there were many people out in the streets, with no shelter and no food. Al Capone opened some of the first soup kitchens to feed those who needed to be fed. He handed out clothes during the long winters to those who lacked it. Why bother help those who are in the streets? Perhaps this menace had a heart after all. Maybe he knew what it was like being poor, and although it isn’t much, it’s something.

 

A small act like this is very much needed in troubled times like those. To see it come from a man like Al Capone really says something. It shows to society that people can still help if they actually wanted to. How many people got the message? I wouldn’t be able to give you the answer to that but it sure does send a message. He wasn’t your average criminal who constantly had to hide from the authorities. No, Capone was a celebrity.  Just as any other celebrity he was constantly in the public eye.

 

Was he treated any differently BECAUSE he was “different”? Sure there were many other mafia families and gangs, which means there were many other mobsters roaming the cities. They might have committed many of the crimes Al Capone did, but why was he such an exception in the eye of the law? Surely other criminals did time for homicides and robberies, but Capone avoiding these charges made him almost untouchable. The ironic thing is that hewas actually charged for something so simple.

 

But his crimes were not easily proven in court. So federal prosecutors charged Capone not with running illegal breweries or selling whiskey or even slaughtering rival mobsters, but with failure to pay his income taxes” (Columbia Law Review).

 

It seems almost hard to believe, this is what the man FINALLY did time for. It was so difficult to prove Capone guilty for things the whole world knew he was in charge of, the police could never bring out the truth and along with the FBI charged him with this. Like I said in one of the previous paragraphs, the Police department was always a step behind the organized crime groups. Many things would’ve been avoided if they had just found the proper evidence, or charged him of anything they were really sure of. It was Al Capone’s way with words and actions that stopped this from happening. Yes, a lot of things could’ve been stopped with Capone being locked up earlier. The difference between him and the other mobsters was that he made sure to commit the perfect crime.

 

 

 

 

Works Cited:

 

 

  • Eig, Jonathan. “Get Capone: the Secret Plot That Captured America’s Most Wanted Gangster”.

Simon & Schuster, 2011.

Columbia Law Review, vol. 150, no. 2. Mar. 2005, pp. 583-639

First Draft

Christopher Alfaro
Professor Kitana Ananda
ENG103
November 16, 2017

Two Sides of Capone.

When talking about dark years in the history of the United States it is almost
impossible to skip the era of the “Roaring 20’s”. It is undeniable that the American culture changed in many different aspects, especially in different cities across the country. The City of Chicago was no exception to this. The population was increasing as much as the skyscrapers being built. Immigrants from all over were coming to this city searching for jobs and opportunities. The United States was always a door with “hope” and “prosperity”, but Chicago
had something special. It was a city for strong people who weren’t afraid of being out there. This is what infamous criminal mastermind Al Capone was known for, and this is why the city was his. He was made for those streets like Bonnie was made for Clyde. Capone’s acts of violence indeed shifted the life of many others and his operations proved the authorities were still a step behind the organized crime group, but people admired the man in the extravagant suits. The citizens of Chicago were in a moment in history ruled by Capone’s organized crime that led to many changes in society, and despite contrary belief not all were bad.

Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, to immigrant parents. He had a big family, as he was just one out of nine kids. Life as an Italian immigrant couldn’t be easy. Now being poor just made everything much harder, which led to Capone dropping out of school in the sixth grade. At a very young age he tried doing anything he could, and started getting involved in street gangs and getting his name out there. Fast forward to Chicago, 1920. Al Capone had arrived to begin leaving his mark of infamy. At the time, he arrived at the second largest city in the nation following New York City, after its reconstruction of course. Capone had arrived to this city to work for a childhood friend, Johnny Torrio. In “Get Capone”, the timing was perfect.

“…Things began to turn during the years of World War I. A wave of temperance swept the country. Americans we expected to sober up and sacrifice for their nation. Even Chicago cleaned itself up a little. Saloons were raided. Licenses were revoked. The high-end whores and drug dealers, fearing arrest, quit working in bordellos and dance halls and moved to hotel lobbies, where they could be more discreet” (Eig, 7).

Shortly after the occurrences listed above, The Prohibition law was in effect.
Capone had arrived just in time to go against everything that law said, and since the streets were a bit cleaner, he was ready to take action. With the levels of alcohol consumption dropping to an all time low because of this law, Capone’s eyes lit up like he had everything solved. His first crime, Bootlegging.

Capone’s plan to make money was genius. He was determined to give people
what they wanted, and he was determined to make his fortune off going against the law enforcement. Is this is correct? Absolutely not. He did what he thought he could do best. He used his tools and experience in bars, brothels, and gang activities to his advantage. According to “Get Capone”, the more the city expanded, the more its crimes did. “By 1910, a special commission reported that five thousand full time prostitutes and ten thousand part-timers
worked the city, and that, combined, they were responsible for more than 27 million sex acts a year” (Eig, 5). The amount of money made in these illegal activities was unreal. Bad things always seem the most searched for, and they are what sells the most. Chicago was a city that as its streets got emptied, it starved for the crime it once had. Al Capone started his story by feeding it by bits.

The story of Al Capone has two sides. One known by all, which is filled with
hits, attacks, illegal alcohol, etc. The other side of events, gave Capone a lot of respect and admiration from the community. In the year 1929 the United States lived its worst times due to the great depression. The country suffered immensely, and the citizens pleaded to the government for help. This caused many people to be out in the streets. There was no money, no jobs. The country was inhabitable, because of course the rich stayed rich and the poor and middle class suffered. Al Capone had a soft spot for this. Although he was a wealthy man, he helped out some people who needed it. During these very difficult years, there were many people out in the streets, with no homes and no food. Al Capone opened some of the first soup kitchens to feed those who needed to be fed. He handed out clothes during the long winters to those who lacked it. Why bother help those who are in the streets? Perhaps this menace had a heart after all. Maybe he knew what it was like being poor, and although it isn’t much, it’s something.

A small act like this is very much needed in troubled times like those. To see
it come from a man like Al Capone really says something. It shows to society that people can still help if they actually wanted to. How many people got the message? I wouldn’t be able to give you the answer to that… But it sure does send a message.

Second Draft of Your Research Paper

Draft #2  is a full draft of your research paper (of approximately 1800 words), and is due this Monday, November 20, in class. 

With Draft #2, you want to make sure that you have written a draft of your paper from start to finish that includes the following:

  • A working title for your paper
  • An introduction and a clear statement of your thesis
  • The effective use of at least two scholarly sources (as defined in class, and in the slideshow on “Engaging Sources” in Google Drive)
  • Parenthetical citations in the MLA format to cite your sources
  • A complete Works Cited list on the last page

Remember: This is a draft. Do as much as you can, and bring whatever you have. 

In class, you will review and respond to two other students’ drafts in class using the questions that guided our last peer review. We will also work on a “reverse outline” of your paper to guide the revision process.

Here’s why you should bring any stage of your draft, even if you feel like it’s not “ready” to submit:

  • If you bring a draft to class, you’ll receive feedback from your peers the same day
  • You’ll be able to complete the “reverse outline” and get a jumpstart on revising your draft
  • You will receive feedback from me within one week of the assignment’s due date, or by Monday, November 27, and will have enough time to address that feedback

As you work on your draft:

Basic info on formatting your assignment:

  • Your assignment (in Google Docs, and when printed) should include your name, our course number (ENG 103.0905) your professor’s name (Professor Kitana Ananda), and the date submitted. (You do not need to include this information in your blog post.) Use 1” margins, double-spacing, and an 11 or 12 point font. I encourage you to print on both sides.

To submit your assignment:

  1. Save your draft as a Google Doc in your writing portfolio (your Drive folder)
  2. Print and bring two copies of your paper for class
  3. Come prepared to read and do a peer review for two other students

Questions to Guide Your Peer Review

Exchange drafts with another student. Read the paper from start to finish. Jot down any initial impressions or ideas.

Now answer a couple of questions. In providing feedback, we want to start our comments with notes on what worked about the paper. Make positive comments first, then make constructive comments to help the writer develop their ideas and organization to improve their paper.

  1. What did you appreciate about this paper? Note where the writer grabbed your interest, any interesting phrases or insights, strong introductions, etc
  2. Is there anything you did not understand while reading this paper? Use lines or arrows to indicate which section, and note what you found confusing

Read the paper again to answer the following questions—and write down your responses on a separate sheet of paper. You will hand this back to your partner, so be generous in your reading, and thorough.

  1. What is the main argument of this paper?
  2.  Does the paper make any other claims?
  3.  What evidence does the paper use to support its claims?
  4.  Did you find the evidence used convincing? Why or why not?
  5.  What did you learn or take away from reading this paper?

Research Paper Draft #1

Angel Kinney

ENG103.0905

Professor Kitana Ananda

American Feminism: Embrace Your Inner Bitch

Why is it that women are continuously shunned or insulted for doing the exact same things that a man is praised for? For years women have been trying to get accepted for the leadership skills they possess instead of being called a bossy bitch. Some women are afraid to admit what they want in the bedroom because whenever they bring up the topic of sex they are called sluts and whores. It is about time that has changed, and throughout the years it has gotten better. Feminism has changed the way people view women in America today by showing that women are not just wives and mothers, that they are people even without those titles.

To begin, what is feminism anyway and why is it so important? Feminism is believing that all genders should be equal, that everyone should be paid the same amount of money for the same work, that pregnant women should have the workplace suited to her needs. One thing feminism is not is hatred of men. So many people think that if one is a feminist than that must mean that they despise men and wish to be rid of them, but this is not true in the least. Feminism wants men to be able to be whoever they want, to wear makeup if they want to because being feminine is not a bad thing. Feminism aspires to teach young boys and men alike that it is okay to cry and to show your emotional side after all everyone is human.

In Debra Beck’s article, she speaks about a time when people agreed with feminist views but yet they still denied being a feminist; this still happens today, nearly twenty years later. The reason that people reject feminism so largely is because of the way the media has always portrayed feminism until recently, that being that feminists are hairy lesbian women who hate men. This is not at all true, another thing that the media portrayed feminists as were women who were out to destroy family values like wives in the kitchen and mothers who only cleaned the house and took care of the children. The media did this in hope to scare people away from wanting to become feminists, and they sure did that. Yes, there are many feminists around the world but they are still looked at rather poorly because of how the media used to illustrate them. Another label that was thrown at feminists was the name “bra burners” when contestants of the 1968 Miss America Pageant threw their bras in trash cans as an act of protest. This also caused people to shy away from admitting that they were a feminist and would say the following instead, “I’m not a feminist, but…” (Beck).

This phrase is still largely around today and was also mentioned in Jessica Valenti’s book Full Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman’s Guide to Why Feminism Matters which was originally published in 2007 and then reprinted again in 2014 when a few things changed like the cover of the book. This proves that the feminist movement has not caught everyone just yet and may never catch everyone. Beck’s information was almost twenty years ago and a few things have changed, the feminist movement is a lot stronger and a bit more accepted even though there are plenty of people who still think that it is unnecessary for the movement to exist at all.

Debra Beck also said that the reason women are not seen in the same strong light as men or as important is because of the theory of masculinity and femininity where men are illustrated as “good” and that women were the opposite of men, naming them as “bad” or “evil”. Going into more detail with this concept, the “good” men were also only truly considered good if they were “white middle-class, and Christian”, meaning that is you were a black Muslim, there was no place for you among the “good” men (Beck).
Now, the reason for all this negative light on the feminist movement all boils down to one major role player: mass media, back in 1992 most if not all decision-makers in the media were males. Since males are the dominant gender in America they did not want females to get certain rights that could damage their life, so they started bashing them in the papers and on the television and radio. No female wanted to be called a man-hating lesbian, well at least a good portion did not want to be called those things, so they stayed out of the movement. Some women who knew they were not lesbians still feared being called the term.

Once the media finally decided to address feminist issues it was still not exactly what the movement was looking for, many television shows and films portrayed women’s issues, but in a negative light or in a completely unrealistic way. For example, they had a publicized “catfight” between two different kinds of feminists, one a blonde housewife and another a brunette career woman, this proves that feminism is different to everyone, but showing it in a negative light does not help the movement progress. However, the media is not all bad, a social movement cannot thrive without the help of the media. Whether it is positive or negative attention that a movement is receiving, it is better than none. For instance, if social media completely disregarded the feminist movement, the third wave of feminism would not have happened and feminists today would not have a movement.

Works Cited
Beck Baker Debra. “The ‘F” Word: How the Media Frame Feminism.” NWSA Journal. 1998.
Dubler R. Ariela. “Exceptions to the General Rule: Unmarried Women and the Constitution of the Family”. Theoretical Inquiries in Law. 2003.
O’Brian Patricia. The Woman Alone. Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., Inc. 1973.
Valenti, Jessica. Full Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman’s Guide to Why Feminism Matters.
Seal Press, 2014. Print.

Draft # 1 – Research Paper

Kavita Singh

English 103-0905

Professor: Kitana Ananda

November 3rd 2017

“The Jonestown Massacre”

 

“Take our life from us. We laid it down. We got tired. We didn’t commit suicide. We committed an act of revolutionary suicide protesting the conditions of an inhumane world.” – Jim Jones last words on Death Tape FBI No. 0042 (18 November 1978). How does one preach the complete opposite of Protection of Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property (Amendment 5 of the United States Constitution). How can one be so naive to believe in someone who wants others to commit suicide to save themselves?. Here is the story of the Jonestown Massacre created by one of the evilest men of the 1970’s; Jim Jones.

Jim Jones was the creator of “The People’s Temple”, which was created to be free from oppression and violence. According to his son, Stephan Jones his preaches were about socialist ideas and Christian Redemption. Many individuals were fooled by Jim Jones and believed that “The People’s Temple” was a way to seek help and also to serve humanity. Many were fooled that he had special powers to heal the sick and dying. Throughout his services at the Temple healings were staged for the people to believe in his lies.

“The People’s Temple” was first built in San Francisco, California where Jones became more popular by preaching  more about Social Activism and started to call himself “a profit, a savior that would guide, protect and watch over his followers”. (Jonestown: Paradise Lost  – 2006 movie/ documentary). Followers began to refer to him as their “Father” and many of them signed over their paychecks, possessions and even their homes to him. But there were a few followers that left while they can after rumours spreading that he was a physical and sexual abuser and a mind controller.

In 1977 Jim Jones and supporters left San Francisco, California and set out to South America, Guyana to build a new community. “The Peoples Temple”was created one hundred and fifty miles away from the capital of Guyana which was Georgetown,  was then the  establishment of Jonestown. Vernon Gosney, a survivor of the massacre joined “The People’s Temple” from 1974-1978 and lived in Jonestown for eight months. He currently is a Police Officer living in Hawaii. He explains that an emergency code “White Night” was created for extreme emergencies. For example, to create fear and desperation amongst his followers and also to rehearse for Mass Suicide which he considered to be a “Test of Faith.

November 14th 1978, the United States Congressman Jay Ryan and agent Jackie Spheir flew to Guyana to investigate allegations of abuse within the temple. Congressman Ryan decided that he would create a delegation which consisted of relatives who were determined to see that their loved ones were free to come and go as they pleased but Jones considered the group as a direct threat. Fourteen members that spoke out against Jones accompanied Congressman Ryan on his trip to Guyana. Members of the United States Media covered the trip including Dawn Harris from NBC and American Television Network, and also Tim Reiterman which was a reporter on assignment for the San Francisco Examiner.

Jim Jones controlled the members of “The People’s Temple” through disciplinary beatings and forcing them to turn over their property and custody of their children. When some of the individuals decided that they did not want to be apart of this lifestyle anymore Jones threatened them with death if they left the organization. Sherwin Harris was one of the members that bordered Congressman Ryan’s plane. He was attempting to visit his daughter Lynn who was living in Jonestown. In 1978 Lyann was just twenty one years of age when she was brought into “The People’s Temple” by her mother who was one of the members.

Jones created an isolation of the people from the outside world. There were no telephones, televisions, or commuting with anyone outside of Jonestown. Jones made people sign a petition stating that they didn’t want to see their loved ones. Being a leader how could u isolate people from their families? Jones wife, Marceline Jones had a passion for helping children so she had schools, nurseries, and clinics built for them. Even though Jones mid was so corrupted his wife seemed to actually care about people.

It took a few days for Jones to let Congressman Ryan and other family members to enter Jonestown. When Congressman Ryan finally entered Jones made sure to show that nothing funny and unusual was going on. But during the night Vernon decided to pass a note to who he thought was the Congressman which said “Please get me out”. Luckily it was one of the men that came with the Congressman and delivered the message. Vernon was pulled aside and was told that they were going to get him out. Jones made Vernon sign a note stating that he was leaving his son in Jonestown. After it was time for Congressman Ryan and the other visitors to go Jones ordered their plane to be shot down and the pilot to be killed.

After ordering the plane to be shot down Jim Jones decided that it was time to die. Jones made it seem as if “The People’s Temple” was under attack. The children were the first to die by the poison including Vernon’s son. “If we can’t live in peace, then let us die in peace”. (Jonestown: Paradise Lost  – 2006 movie/ documentary). To Jones, the people did not commit suicide, they committed an act of revolutionary suicide protesting the conditions of the inhumane world. Lastly, many people were killed in this horrific tragedy. For instance, Congressman Ryan was assasinated, Dohn Harris of NBC, Ray Robinson the photographer, Rob Brown of NBC, Patricia Parks which was one of the defectors. There were eleven other people which were wounded but did survive.

In “The People’s Temple” Sharon and Lyann both slit their throats and killed the children. After all the children were killed Jones wife took the poison herself and Jones ordered someone to shoot him in the head. He couldn’t even go the same way he ordered others to die. This was not a mass massacre it was a mass murder according to Jim Jones son Stepan. 908 members of “The Peoples Temple” committed suicide or were poisoned against their will by being forced to drink the poison or being injected with it. Almost 300 of them were children with no idea what was going on.In the end, the gunman Larry Layton was jailed for eighteen years and released in April 2002. Tim Reiterman is now a Journalist for the Los Angeles Times and Co – Author of “Raven”, a book written about “The Peoples Temple”. Vernon Gosney is a Police Officer living in Hawaii, Sherwin Harris is a businessman and has two children, and finally Stephan Jones is married with three daughters.

To conclude, no person can control minds the way Jim Jones did. Jim Jones was a monster full of rage, hatred, and lies. He made the people believe in his lies, he abused their freedom and will power. Why commit such a crime? What could possibly be going through his mind? Jim Jones created such a horrific history that some may not be able to bare the truth of it. Throughout my essay i decided to tell the story of Jim Jones; the creator of Jonestown to specify on the importance of having your own mind and expressing your freedom. He was called a religious leader but also a psycho. Innocent people put there whole life in a murders hand and now they are all our history.

 

Draft # 1

Alejandro Canelas

English 103.0905

Professor Kitana Ananda

November 5th 2017

Research Paper Draft # 1

      Gentrification in New York City

The City of New York is without a question a Global city that attracts various groups of people from around the world. With that in mind, it is of no coincidence that New York City is an attractive area for many investors to flock to. With all the economic activity that New York City experiences one can see the flipside of all this new investment to NYC. This flipside is the topic of Gentrification that this paper will dismantle and shed light on. Gentrification as defined by webster is the process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle-class or affluent people into deteriorating areas that often displaces poorer residents (Webster). POC tend to be the ones at most risk when it comes to displacement and housing issues. This paper will delve into dissecting the neighborhoods of Harlem/East Harlem, and North Williamsburg; which have experienced dramatic shifts in demographics and undergone heavy boutiquing. In addition, the oral histories of New yorkers will be highlighted and in particular giving a voice to the Latino community of New York and issues they have faced and the various resistance strategies implemented.

Statistics indicated that from the years of 1989 to 2002 that displacements rates of experienced an exponential increase (Newman).

draft 1

Kymberly Gurdon

November 5, 2017

Professor K.

English 103
You believe all the struggles and hardships faced by Jamaican immigrants would be resolve when they come to American, however, that’s wrong they are face with many barriers even when they are here. For example, securing work is a big one because they need money to live a successful life, raising children and helping them succeed in school, Securing housing and accessing services. Even though America is known for their “American Dream” fancy cars and huge houses that’s not always the case with immigrants that come to America.                                  Even though u learn and probably have all the knowledge for a certain career you still have to go through the process we have here in America , for example , having your high school diploma , a certain amount of college credits and experience. Most immigrants had a lot of education back in their country however the requirements here are sometimes different. Most immigrants that do come to America have to enroll back in school and do the whole learning process back over. In Monticello’s article “5 Ways to Adjust to American Culture,”

When I came to the U.S. for college, I suffered from a major case of “reverse culture shock.” Although I’m an American citizen, I hadn’t lived in the U.S. since I was 5 years old. I felt like I should feel at home here – after all, this is the country immigration officers see when they look at my passport. But whenever I listened to my American friends talk about their common childhood experiences, I couldn’t help but feel strangely alienated.

In that quote Montecillo explains the hardship of fitting in at school even though he met all the requirements in his country to attend college it was still hard for his when he got to a college in America. He felt challenged and overwhelmed with the language, work and school criteria that was given.

One of the biggest hardships for immigrants is raising a child to help them succeed in school.

With regards to school, parents often feel disappointed to see their children struggling to keep up in class, and many parents report bullying and discrimination as a result of cultural differences.  Kids tend to pick up English much faster than their parents. This throws off the parent-child dynamic, and you know that kids, especially teens, are going to use this to their advantage. (Nuñez)

Immigrant Parents of American children face a huge problem when helping their children in school because they do not have the right and good amount of education needed to help them. English is a major problem