First Draft

Christopher Alfaro
Professor Kitana Ananda
ENG103
November 16, 2017

Two Sides of Capone.

When talking about dark years in the history of the United States it is almost
impossible to skip the era of the “Roaring 20’s”. It is undeniable that the American culture changed in many different aspects, especially in different cities across the country. The City of Chicago was no exception to this. The population was increasing as much as the skyscrapers being built. Immigrants from all over were coming to this city searching for jobs and opportunities. The United States was always a door with “hope” and “prosperity”, but Chicago
had something special. It was a city for strong people who weren’t afraid of being out there. This is what infamous criminal mastermind Al Capone was known for, and this is why the city was his. He was made for those streets like Bonnie was made for Clyde. Capone’s acts of violence indeed shifted the life of many others and his operations proved the authorities were still a step behind the organized crime group, but people admired the man in the extravagant suits. The citizens of Chicago were in a moment in history ruled by Capone’s organized crime that led to many changes in society, and despite contrary belief not all were bad.

Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, to immigrant parents. He had a big family, as he was just one out of nine kids. Life as an Italian immigrant couldn’t be easy. Now being poor just made everything much harder, which led to Capone dropping out of school in the sixth grade. At a very young age he tried doing anything he could, and started getting involved in street gangs and getting his name out there. Fast forward to Chicago, 1920. Al Capone had arrived to begin leaving his mark of infamy. At the time, he arrived at the second largest city in the nation following New York City, after its reconstruction of course. Capone had arrived to this city to work for a childhood friend, Johnny Torrio. In “Get Capone”, the timing was perfect.

“…Things began to turn during the years of World War I. A wave of temperance swept the country. Americans we expected to sober up and sacrifice for their nation. Even Chicago cleaned itself up a little. Saloons were raided. Licenses were revoked. The high-end whores and drug dealers, fearing arrest, quit working in bordellos and dance halls and moved to hotel lobbies, where they could be more discreet” (Eig, 7).

Shortly after the occurrences listed above, The Prohibition law was in effect.
Capone had arrived just in time to go against everything that law said, and since the streets were a bit cleaner, he was ready to take action. With the levels of alcohol consumption dropping to an all time low because of this law, Capone’s eyes lit up like he had everything solved. His first crime, Bootlegging.

Capone’s plan to make money was genius. He was determined to give people
what they wanted, and he was determined to make his fortune off going against the law enforcement. Is this is correct? Absolutely not. He did what he thought he could do best. He used his tools and experience in bars, brothels, and gang activities to his advantage. According to “Get Capone”, the more the city expanded, the more its crimes did. “By 1910, a special commission reported that five thousand full time prostitutes and ten thousand part-timers
worked the city, and that, combined, they were responsible for more than 27 million sex acts a year” (Eig, 5). The amount of money made in these illegal activities was unreal. Bad things always seem the most searched for, and they are what sells the most. Chicago was a city that as its streets got emptied, it starved for the crime it once had. Al Capone started his story by feeding it by bits.

The story of Al Capone has two sides. One known by all, which is filled with
hits, attacks, illegal alcohol, etc. The other side of events, gave Capone a lot of respect and admiration from the community. In the year 1929 the United States lived its worst times due to the great depression. The country suffered immensely, and the citizens pleaded to the government for help. This caused many people to be out in the streets. There was no money, no jobs. The country was inhabitable, because of course the rich stayed rich and the poor and middle class suffered. Al Capone had a soft spot for this. Although he was a wealthy man, he helped out some people who needed it. During these very difficult years, there were many people out in the streets, with no homes and no food. Al Capone opened some of the first soup kitchens to feed those who needed to be fed. He handed out clothes during the long winters to those who lacked it. Why bother help those who are in the streets? Perhaps this menace had a heart after all. Maybe he knew what it was like being poor, and although it isn’t much, it’s something.

A small act like this is very much needed in troubled times like those. To see
it come from a man like Al Capone really says something. It shows to society that people can still help if they actually wanted to. How many people got the message? I wouldn’t be able to give you the answer to that… But it sure does send a message.

Research Paper Draft #1

Angel Kinney

ENG103.0905

Professor Kitana Ananda

American Feminism: Embrace Your Inner Bitch

Why is it that women are continuously shunned or insulted for doing the exact same things that a man is praised for? For years women have been trying to get accepted for the leadership skills they possess instead of being called a bossy bitch. Some women are afraid to admit what they want in the bedroom because whenever they bring up the topic of sex they are called sluts and whores. It is about time that has changed, and throughout the years it has gotten better. Feminism has changed the way people view women in America today by showing that women are not just wives and mothers, that they are people even without those titles.

To begin, what is feminism anyway and why is it so important? Feminism is believing that all genders should be equal, that everyone should be paid the same amount of money for the same work, that pregnant women should have the workplace suited to her needs. One thing feminism is not is hatred of men. So many people think that if one is a feminist than that must mean that they despise men and wish to be rid of them, but this is not true in the least. Feminism wants men to be able to be whoever they want, to wear makeup if they want to because being feminine is not a bad thing. Feminism aspires to teach young boys and men alike that it is okay to cry and to show your emotional side after all everyone is human.

In Debra Beck’s article, she speaks about a time when people agreed with feminist views but yet they still denied being a feminist; this still happens today, nearly twenty years later. The reason that people reject feminism so largely is because of the way the media has always portrayed feminism until recently, that being that feminists are hairy lesbian women who hate men. This is not at all true, another thing that the media portrayed feminists as were women who were out to destroy family values like wives in the kitchen and mothers who only cleaned the house and took care of the children. The media did this in hope to scare people away from wanting to become feminists, and they sure did that. Yes, there are many feminists around the world but they are still looked at rather poorly because of how the media used to illustrate them. Another label that was thrown at feminists was the name “bra burners” when contestants of the 1968 Miss America Pageant threw their bras in trash cans as an act of protest. This also caused people to shy away from admitting that they were a feminist and would say the following instead, “I’m not a feminist, but…” (Beck).

This phrase is still largely around today and was also mentioned in Jessica Valenti’s book Full Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman’s Guide to Why Feminism Matters which was originally published in 2007 and then reprinted again in 2014 when a few things changed like the cover of the book. This proves that the feminist movement has not caught everyone just yet and may never catch everyone. Beck’s information was almost twenty years ago and a few things have changed, the feminist movement is a lot stronger and a bit more accepted even though there are plenty of people who still think that it is unnecessary for the movement to exist at all.

Debra Beck also said that the reason women are not seen in the same strong light as men or as important is because of the theory of masculinity and femininity where men are illustrated as “good” and that women were the opposite of men, naming them as “bad” or “evil”. Going into more detail with this concept, the “good” men were also only truly considered good if they were “white middle-class, and Christian”, meaning that is you were a black Muslim, there was no place for you among the “good” men (Beck).
Now, the reason for all this negative light on the feminist movement all boils down to one major role player: mass media, back in 1992 most if not all decision-makers in the media were males. Since males are the dominant gender in America they did not want females to get certain rights that could damage their life, so they started bashing them in the papers and on the television and radio. No female wanted to be called a man-hating lesbian, well at least a good portion did not want to be called those things, so they stayed out of the movement. Some women who knew they were not lesbians still feared being called the term.

Once the media finally decided to address feminist issues it was still not exactly what the movement was looking for, many television shows and films portrayed women’s issues, but in a negative light or in a completely unrealistic way. For example, they had a publicized “catfight” between two different kinds of feminists, one a blonde housewife and another a brunette career woman, this proves that feminism is different to everyone, but showing it in a negative light does not help the movement progress. However, the media is not all bad, a social movement cannot thrive without the help of the media. Whether it is positive or negative attention that a movement is receiving, it is better than none. For instance, if social media completely disregarded the feminist movement, the third wave of feminism would not have happened and feminists today would not have a movement.

Works Cited
Beck Baker Debra. “The ‘F” Word: How the Media Frame Feminism.” NWSA Journal. 1998.
Dubler R. Ariela. “Exceptions to the General Rule: Unmarried Women and the Constitution of the Family”. Theoretical Inquiries in Law. 2003.
O’Brian Patricia. The Woman Alone. Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., Inc. 1973.
Valenti, Jessica. Full Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman’s Guide to Why Feminism Matters.
Seal Press, 2014. Print.

Draft # 1 – Research Paper

Kavita Singh

English 103-0905

Professor: Kitana Ananda

November 3rd 2017

“The Jonestown Massacre”

 

“Take our life from us. We laid it down. We got tired. We didn’t commit suicide. We committed an act of revolutionary suicide protesting the conditions of an inhumane world.” – Jim Jones last words on Death Tape FBI No. 0042 (18 November 1978). How does one preach the complete opposite of Protection of Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property (Amendment 5 of the United States Constitution). How can one be so naive to believe in someone who wants others to commit suicide to save themselves?. Here is the story of the Jonestown Massacre created by one of the evilest men of the 1970’s; Jim Jones.

Jim Jones was the creator of “The People’s Temple”, which was created to be free from oppression and violence. According to his son, Stephan Jones his preaches were about socialist ideas and Christian Redemption. Many individuals were fooled by Jim Jones and believed that “The People’s Temple” was a way to seek help and also to serve humanity. Many were fooled that he had special powers to heal the sick and dying. Throughout his services at the Temple healings were staged for the people to believe in his lies.

“The People’s Temple” was first built in San Francisco, California where Jones became more popular by preaching  more about Social Activism and started to call himself “a profit, a savior that would guide, protect and watch over his followers”. (Jonestown: Paradise Lost  – 2006 movie/ documentary). Followers began to refer to him as their “Father” and many of them signed over their paychecks, possessions and even their homes to him. But there were a few followers that left while they can after rumours spreading that he was a physical and sexual abuser and a mind controller.

In 1977 Jim Jones and supporters left San Francisco, California and set out to South America, Guyana to build a new community. “The Peoples Temple”was created one hundred and fifty miles away from the capital of Guyana which was Georgetown,  was then the  establishment of Jonestown. Vernon Gosney, a survivor of the massacre joined “The People’s Temple” from 1974-1978 and lived in Jonestown for eight months. He currently is a Police Officer living in Hawaii. He explains that an emergency code “White Night” was created for extreme emergencies. For example, to create fear and desperation amongst his followers and also to rehearse for Mass Suicide which he considered to be a “Test of Faith.

November 14th 1978, the United States Congressman Jay Ryan and agent Jackie Spheir flew to Guyana to investigate allegations of abuse within the temple. Congressman Ryan decided that he would create a delegation which consisted of relatives who were determined to see that their loved ones were free to come and go as they pleased but Jones considered the group as a direct threat. Fourteen members that spoke out against Jones accompanied Congressman Ryan on his trip to Guyana. Members of the United States Media covered the trip including Dawn Harris from NBC and American Television Network, and also Tim Reiterman which was a reporter on assignment for the San Francisco Examiner.

Jim Jones controlled the members of “The People’s Temple” through disciplinary beatings and forcing them to turn over their property and custody of their children. When some of the individuals decided that they did not want to be apart of this lifestyle anymore Jones threatened them with death if they left the organization. Sherwin Harris was one of the members that bordered Congressman Ryan’s plane. He was attempting to visit his daughter Lynn who was living in Jonestown. In 1978 Lyann was just twenty one years of age when she was brought into “The People’s Temple” by her mother who was one of the members.

Jones created an isolation of the people from the outside world. There were no telephones, televisions, or commuting with anyone outside of Jonestown. Jones made people sign a petition stating that they didn’t want to see their loved ones. Being a leader how could u isolate people from their families? Jones wife, Marceline Jones had a passion for helping children so she had schools, nurseries, and clinics built for them. Even though Jones mid was so corrupted his wife seemed to actually care about people.

It took a few days for Jones to let Congressman Ryan and other family members to enter Jonestown. When Congressman Ryan finally entered Jones made sure to show that nothing funny and unusual was going on. But during the night Vernon decided to pass a note to who he thought was the Congressman which said “Please get me out”. Luckily it was one of the men that came with the Congressman and delivered the message. Vernon was pulled aside and was told that they were going to get him out. Jones made Vernon sign a note stating that he was leaving his son in Jonestown. After it was time for Congressman Ryan and the other visitors to go Jones ordered their plane to be shot down and the pilot to be killed.

After ordering the plane to be shot down Jim Jones decided that it was time to die. Jones made it seem as if “The People’s Temple” was under attack. The children were the first to die by the poison including Vernon’s son. “If we can’t live in peace, then let us die in peace”. (Jonestown: Paradise Lost  – 2006 movie/ documentary). To Jones, the people did not commit suicide, they committed an act of revolutionary suicide protesting the conditions of the inhumane world. Lastly, many people were killed in this horrific tragedy. For instance, Congressman Ryan was assasinated, Dohn Harris of NBC, Ray Robinson the photographer, Rob Brown of NBC, Patricia Parks which was one of the defectors. There were eleven other people which were wounded but did survive.

In “The People’s Temple” Sharon and Lyann both slit their throats and killed the children. After all the children were killed Jones wife took the poison herself and Jones ordered someone to shoot him in the head. He couldn’t even go the same way he ordered others to die. This was not a mass massacre it was a mass murder according to Jim Jones son Stepan. 908 members of “The Peoples Temple” committed suicide or were poisoned against their will by being forced to drink the poison or being injected with it. Almost 300 of them were children with no idea what was going on.In the end, the gunman Larry Layton was jailed for eighteen years and released in April 2002. Tim Reiterman is now a Journalist for the Los Angeles Times and Co – Author of “Raven”, a book written about “The Peoples Temple”. Vernon Gosney is a Police Officer living in Hawaii, Sherwin Harris is a businessman and has two children, and finally Stephan Jones is married with three daughters.

To conclude, no person can control minds the way Jim Jones did. Jim Jones was a monster full of rage, hatred, and lies. He made the people believe in his lies, he abused their freedom and will power. Why commit such a crime? What could possibly be going through his mind? Jim Jones created such a horrific history that some may not be able to bare the truth of it. Throughout my essay i decided to tell the story of Jim Jones; the creator of Jonestown to specify on the importance of having your own mind and expressing your freedom. He was called a religious leader but also a psycho. Innocent people put there whole life in a murders hand and now they are all our history.

 

Draft # 1

Alejandro Canelas

English 103.0905

Professor Kitana Ananda

November 5th 2017

Research Paper Draft # 1

      Gentrification in New York City

The City of New York is without a question a Global city that attracts various groups of people from around the world. With that in mind, it is of no coincidence that New York City is an attractive area for many investors to flock to. With all the economic activity that New York City experiences one can see the flipside of all this new investment to NYC. This flipside is the topic of Gentrification that this paper will dismantle and shed light on. Gentrification as defined by webster is the process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle-class or affluent people into deteriorating areas that often displaces poorer residents (Webster). POC tend to be the ones at most risk when it comes to displacement and housing issues. This paper will delve into dissecting the neighborhoods of Harlem/East Harlem, and North Williamsburg; which have experienced dramatic shifts in demographics and undergone heavy boutiquing. In addition, the oral histories of New yorkers will be highlighted and in particular giving a voice to the Latino community of New York and issues they have faced and the various resistance strategies implemented.

Statistics indicated that from the years of 1989 to 2002 that displacements rates of experienced an exponential increase (Newman).

draft 1

Kymberly Gurdon

November 5, 2017

Professor K.

English 103
You believe all the struggles and hardships faced by Jamaican immigrants would be resolve when they come to American, however, that’s wrong they are face with many barriers even when they are here. For example, securing work is a big one because they need money to live a successful life, raising children and helping them succeed in school, Securing housing and accessing services. Even though America is known for their “American Dream” fancy cars and huge houses that’s not always the case with immigrants that come to America.                                  Even though u learn and probably have all the knowledge for a certain career you still have to go through the process we have here in America , for example , having your high school diploma , a certain amount of college credits and experience. Most immigrants had a lot of education back in their country however the requirements here are sometimes different. Most immigrants that do come to America have to enroll back in school and do the whole learning process back over. In Monticello’s article “5 Ways to Adjust to American Culture,”

When I came to the U.S. for college, I suffered from a major case of “reverse culture shock.” Although I’m an American citizen, I hadn’t lived in the U.S. since I was 5 years old. I felt like I should feel at home here – after all, this is the country immigration officers see when they look at my passport. But whenever I listened to my American friends talk about their common childhood experiences, I couldn’t help but feel strangely alienated.

In that quote Montecillo explains the hardship of fitting in at school even though he met all the requirements in his country to attend college it was still hard for his when he got to a college in America. He felt challenged and overwhelmed with the language, work and school criteria that was given.

One of the biggest hardships for immigrants is raising a child to help them succeed in school.

With regards to school, parents often feel disappointed to see their children struggling to keep up in class, and many parents report bullying and discrimination as a result of cultural differences.  Kids tend to pick up English much faster than their parents. This throws off the parent-child dynamic, and you know that kids, especially teens, are going to use this to their advantage. (Nuñez)

Immigrant Parents of American children face a huge problem when helping their children in school because they do not have the right and good amount of education needed to help them. English is a major problem

First Draft

Aziza Benjamin

ENG 103.0905

Prof. Kitana Ananda

November 6th, 2017

Immigrants Impact on America

Intro

Immigrants are often accused of stealing jobs and money from hard-working Americans. Immigrants are accused of causing many issues in America. Even the President has many opinions regarding illegal immigrants and how they are causing problems, he accuses them of being rapists and many other things.

Immigrants are always accused of stealing jobs from Americans. Yet, the jobs that most immigrants do when they get here are jobs that Americans won’t do; for example, being maids, babysitters, live in nannies or maids.

Immigrants are accused of taking away money from Americans, because when they work they do not pay taxes; but the thing about this is though they do not pay taxes, they do not get the options legal residents and Americans receive. They also are not paid minimum wage because they are not working legally and has no one to go to about payment. They also cannot receive any benefits because they are not legal residents.

“…In 2006…” according to “…an Iowa congressman [who] claimed that 13 U.S. persons died every day as a result of undocumented drunk drivers…” (Light et. all, 1448).
Immigrants have talked about their experience being detained in a detention center, and the struggles they go through. In “Immigrant Families Behind Bars: Technology Setting Them Free” Blasco writes about immigrant mothers and their experiences behind bars with their children,

L., a Honduran woman seeking asylum, was detained with her young son at a family detention center in Artesia, New Mexico, for three months. They were forced to stay in a room with four other immigrant families, and the young son became very ill, eventually requiring hospitalization.

Yancy Mejia decided that enough was enough after she was kidnapped by a Salvadorian gang, had her fingers broken and wrist dislocated. She took a risk and escaped her home country with her children in search of a better, safer life in America. Little did she know that the United States would not welcome her with open arms. Instead, she and her children were detained at the South Texas Residential Center owned by Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) located in Dilley, Texas. When she expressed the intense pain she was experiencing in her wrist and fingers to the detention center’s doctor, he recommended that she drink water. (698)

Both these women were just trying to make life better for themselves and their families. They were suffering and struggling, and thought coming to America would make their lives easier. Their living conditions in the detention centers are unconstitutional, and they are not given their rights and due process.

Con

America was built on the backs of slaves and immigrants. When Europeans first arrived in America, the ones who could not afford to pay for their tickets borrowed from people which then makes them owe others money. Those ones were called “indentured servants” (Foner, 60). In this letter by Gottlieb Mittelberger in 1750, he states that “The German man and woman he describes had borrowed money to pay their passage and had no choice but to sign long-term labor contracts in America to pay off their debts” (Foner, 60). These indentured servants must pay back their debts before they can go about their lives in America. “Although indentured servants were not held for life, as slaves were, they were brought and sold and their families could easily be broken up” (Foner, 60). One bad thing about having to pay off their debts, they are not guaranteed to be kept as a family; they can be separated based on how they are purchased. Though they were still luckier than slaves who were kept for a lifetime.

Draft #1

In the early life of graffiti, Graffiti Writers would have never thought that this movement would become what it is today. Over the past two decades graffiti has become in immeasurable trend that will probably never die away. Over the years newer and talented individuals seek to express and show off their extraordinary talents in the graffiti world. For those who may not know much about graffiti, it was a gateway for many sorts of things such as political expression, emotional expression or just straight up savagery behavior. Nonetheless, in the early stages was just a way to become known. To have your name be spread throughout the city was a way to earn Street Credit.

In the book Graffiti Lives: Beyond the Tag in New York’s Urban Underground by Gregory J Snyder, the author says, “graffiti is a vehicle of expression” I think that this statement is something many Graffiti Writers would not disagree with since many writers do partake in street art because they want to express certain things whether it be there styles, moods or even skills. In the book the author interviewed a graffiti writer named Cornbread, yes is individual what some of his reasons were for doing graffiti and marking up the streets of the city and he gave one story that was remarkable, Cornbread said he had once tagged up a bus route just 2 pursuer females, meaning all throughout that bus route he would create graffiti pieces just to impress a female. Unfortunately, he said it didn’t work. But that is a clear example as to why some Graffiti writers do what they do, to embrace positive affection from their talents and to sometimes attain certain things. Afridi had originated in Philadelphia from an individual called Bobby Beck. After influencing the graffiti culture in Philly, it soon arrived in New York City in the 60s. A guy from Washington Heights known as Taki 183 was the one who started it all, tagging his name on train stations, trains and on walls created the movement that all the young cats wanted to part take in. There was an article I read called Cyber Bench: Documenting New York City graffiti, it gave an immense amount of information on how graffiti came to be most of what it is today in New York City. In this article it mentions that between the years of 1966 and 1971 graffiti was used for political reasons and for Street gangs to mark their territory. Like I had said previously Taki 183 was the one who started the movement in New York City, writers who wanted to follow in his footsteps immediately we’re Julio 204, Frank 207, and Joe 136. The reason why these individuals chose these tags was because these were their actual names and the numbers where the streets they lived on. During these years of graffiti not many bright ideas were blooming Graffiti Writers, before writers figured out that they had easy access to the train yards all they would tag up work walls, inside train cars, and outside of active trains. During the mid-70s graffiti had evolved from names with numbers to be coming bubble letters with color then words with a perplexing style that was called “wild style”. There are three different types of graffiti, tagging, throw ups and wild style. Tagging is the simple form of graffiti and how it originated, tagging is a writer’s signature, throw ups are quick painted names with an outline, lastly wild style the most hardest of them all. Wild style consists of complicated interlocking letters surrounded by arrows and all different sorts of connections, wild style was known as pieces in the graffiti world (the Mon Lisa of graffiti).

Most of where graffiti was taking place during the seventies where on the trains. Trains were the canvases for all writers, every train the head pass by or left the train yard had a brand-new graffiti piece. During the years of 1975 through 1977 New York City was broke so the transit was poorly maintained given the reason why these street artists we’re constantly putting up new pieces. These years were the heaviest for graffiti because writers were going nonstop every single day trying to get their name out and trying to see their work all around the city. It had become a lifestyle and an addiction, years after from 78 to 81 more styles and ideas started to bloom. With new Styles, new colorways and all types of different creative techniques graffiti had developed into something bigger then it was 10 years before. Street art had given writers a public voice and even Fame, with expressing their feelings and thoughts with art towards the treatment they were given from the government had really opened the eyes of many political people and the citizens of the New York City, these graffiti artist were not only vandalizing for the fun of it, but they were also speaking up for the people who lived in the poor areas of New York. As time went New York graffiti had become a common disruption in the streets and was covering all the walls and train cars of the city. Law enforcement and political efforts tried to catch a hold of it by using the Broken Window Theory. The Broken Window Theory was created by James Q Wilson and George Kelly, they’re theory states that the signs of disorder will lead to more disorder and by controlling the small crimes will prevent the criminals from committing more larger crimes. This Theory however worked, law enforcement could apprehend many Graffiti Writers. The years of 1980s graffiti was coming to its endpoint in the MTA and somewhat controlled throughout some of the city. During the years of the 80s the city had built fences and added a lot more security to train yards, with the increase in security tagging on cars and painting murals on train cars was no longer in full effect. This discouraged a lot of Graffiti Writers, it also had a lot of them leave the world of graffiti but at the same time this opened doors to a lot of writers who wanted to make a living off creating art. And what I mean by this is that since their train car canvases were being taken away they moved on to actual paper canvases and put their graffiti pieces in art studios and sometimes made money off them. The 80s was a tense time with stores locking up their paint and no longer selling spray paint to minors and the city making graffiti punishments more severe. On May 12th of 1989 the MTA declared victory over graffiti. With no more train cars to paint on writers moved to freight trains, scrapyards, highways and rooftops. In today’s time, rooftops and trucks are the most common for graffiti writer to mark up.

Rough Draft #1

Bullying has increased in recent years although it is not clear if the increase reflects more incidents of bullying in school or greater awareness of bullying as a problem. Bullying is when someone gain the strength and power over someone who’s usually too scared to defend themselves.it can be extreme. Bulling at school can affect everyone from the person who is bullied to the person who witness it. To the students that are bullied, it can cause them health complains, mental disabilities, depression and anxieties. It can even decrease their GPA and concern in their field. But worst, it can bring them to take suicidal decisions. According to an article more than 73% had committed suicide because they were victims of bullying. Usually those students show some signs like talking or joking about committing suicide, writing poems about death or writing some stories about how they will take their life away. Those students become isolated and miss a big part of their life and education. They even miss classes because they know once they get to school there are those people who will start make fun of them, giving them all kind of names. And sometimes some of those children also end up committing murder because for them those people deserve to die. According to that same article “In 12 of 15 school shooting cases in the 1990s, the shooters had a history of being bullied.”

Usually they students that bully others have also being victims once and they have that feeling of revenge but unfortunately, they torture others. They get engage in violent fights with the bullied and those fights can lead to a murder. They are most of the time under effects of drugs, alcohol or other stimulants that give them a feeling of superiority over others. They can also be abusive toward their partners, friends or entourage and they can also get engage in sexual harassment or violent. For witnesses, they also have mental health problem, depression, anxieties and even skip school because they cannot stand seeing other people being bullied.

Draft 1- BLOCK

Ryann Block

Professor Kitana Ananda

ENG 103.0905

                               Mental Health Concerns Within The Deaf Community.

        A person who is deaf is at a higher risk of developing emotional and psychological problems than an individual who is not deaf. Most of the time the problems start in the individual’s home. These problems may affect their everyday life activities and may even cause communication delays and or barriers. This paper will examine mental health diagnoses as they correlate to adults and children who are deaf.

       Mental health diagnoses for the deaf has been associated with bipolar disorder, depression, and ADHD.  An individual with a mental health disability often needs specialized treatment and or therapy. Society thinks special treatment is not needed and expresses persons who are deaf are capable of just “dealing” with their disability. People who are Deaf are unsure of treatment services available and or feel isolated or embarrassed in seeking services.

       This paper will discuss mental health issues in the deaf community and the importance of community awareness for this group.  While both papers examined issues between mental health in deaf individuals’, they differ in their research which includes different treatment methods and procedures. The first paper concentrates on children who are deaf and their families as well as the key factors behind the supports they receive.

          The second paper focused on comparing adults who are deaf and hearing individuals. It to determine their difference between their mental status for each group. Peter A. Hindleys paper Mental Health Problems in Deaf Children examined how deafness comes in many forms. (Hindley p.114) He also examined how clinicians whom work with children who are deaf need to be understanding to make sure they provide the appropriate services.

                Peter A. Hindley, discussed the benefits of using British Sign Language as a technique (BSL) for children who are deaf. BSL is a language distinct from English, with its own syntax and lexicon are different from English (Hindley p.115). BSL is also different from American Sign Language (ASL) because it is its own language. BSL provides children who are deaf with a better way to communicate. Part of the study had shown techniques to be effective by practicing points such as gathering a group of children using BSL and informing and teaching their parents.

             Peter A. Hindley felt like the parents would be able to communicate and try to understand why and how (For instance: Why do you feel this way? How can I help?). Hindley stresses that parents play a major role in their childrens life meaning everything that the parents do can negatively affect the child. It was advised that parents should have open communication so their child doesnt grow up to be disoriented. Hindley wanted to prove early deafness as well as pointing out the issues which cause the social, cultural, psychological and medical aspects.

          On a social, cultural and psychological perspective, it was stated that parents respond in many different ways to the knowledge that their child is deaf. Their response is shaped by their previous experience of deafness (Hindley p.115).  The majority of these parents didnt know how to accept their child’s deafness. Many had different views on it and didnt know how to go about it although they knew that there wouldve been a possibility that the child will grow up to be deaf.

        Marit H. Kvam, Mitchell Loeb paper Mental Health in Deaf Adults: Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Among Hearing and Deaf Individuals paper reveals mental health issues among deaf adults compared to adults who can hear. There were studies conducted based on the Norwegian postal survey and one among the general population (Kvam p.1-2)(1995-1997), as well as the deaf generation. In addition, analysis discovered that the deaf showed more symptoms of mental health problems than the hearing.

             Norwegian study examined the “interrelation between psychological problems, social activity and social network” (2007 Kvam p. 1). The results displayed that the deaf were two-four times higher in distress than hearing people.  Many deaf people were gathered in this study and they noticed once they lost their hearing it affected their everyday life activities, such as not being able to socialize with others, and by having suicidal moments because there was a communication barrier.

           It was also discovered that hard of hearing, deaf adults and children were either a victim of physical, sexual or emotional abuse than hearing people because they do not have the mental capacity to express what’s going on or what happened. Usually, a hearing individual may be capable of saying something and the deaf individual may have a hard time because of the lack of interpreters or overall a person who may know their language.  

           When an individual experience hearing loss at a young age its likely for them to experience the quality of life than a hearing person. (Knutson, Johnson, Sullivan p.2 ). As a result, there’s a higher chance that mental health disorders occur because so many individuals bottle up emotions inside and are not able to express themselves. Peter A.Hindley, didnt specify on how many people were tested in this study but instead described some factors which lead to mental health-related issues. He stressed how important it is to recognize the depth of the issue.

           On a medical perspective children, mental health is believed to be caused by the central nervous system(CNS). Medically, deaf children are at a higher risk of CNS than hearing children by 15% compared to children with other related issues such as cerebral palsy or being an epileptic. (Hindley p. 115) Hindley believes that in the medical world its vital to carefully evaluate children because there may be many misdiagnosed.

             In response to the social, cultural and psychological perspective on deafness, it states that parents respond in many ways and its important that families should have an option on what services they would need to address their child being deaf. One would question, should the child be exposed to sign language in their early stages of hearing loss or should they have the option to go with a cochlear implant? There were many issues on this topic so thats why he wanted to create an intervention to separate the groups and see which techniques or method is effective to conclude with his study.  It seemed like he did make a valid point and/or statement that whether youre an interpreter for ASL or BSL, social worker, clinicians working with deaf children with mental health issues then you must be aware of their needs and you should also be sensitive about it. For example, dig into the route of the child and try to see why he/she are feeling the way that theyre or what is it exactly is making them act a certain way (are they hyper?  are they sad?)  He urges that deaf children should indeed seek out and families should support them.

 

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