First Draft of Your Research Paper

Draft #1 of your research paper (900-1200 words) is due this Monday, November 6, in class! Please read carefully, and if you have questions after doing so, add your questions to this document by Sunday, November 5, at 12:00 p.m. (noon).

Remember: This is a draft. Do as much as you can, and bring whatever you have. You will review and respond to two other students’ drafts in class. You will receive questions in class to guide your peer review.

Here’s why you should bring any stage of your draft, even if you feel like it’s not “ready” to submit: 

  • If you bring a draft to class, you’ll receive feedback from your peers
  • You will have an opportunity to reflect on your draft and plan for writing and editing that we will do during our lab time.
  • You will receive timely feedback from me (within one week of the assignment’s due date, or by Monday, November 13.)

As you work on your draft:

And as always, here’s some basic info on formatting your assignment:

  • Your assignment (in Google Docs, printed) should include your name, our course number (ENG 103.0905) your professor’s name (Professor Kitana Ananda), and the date submitted. (You do not need to include this information in your blog post.) Use 1” margins, double-spacing, and an 11 or 12 point font. I encourage you to print on both sides.

To submit your assignment:

  1. Save your draft as a Google Doc in your writing portfolio (your Drive folder)
  2. Post your draft to our course blog
  3. Print and bring two copies of your paper for class
  4. Come prepared to read and do a peer review for two other students

Paper Sketch – Alejandro Canelas

Alejandro Canelas

English 103.0905

Professor Kitana Ananda

October 30th, 2017

Gentrification In New York City

Paper Sketch Assignment


How has Gentrification targeted and Displaced People of Color in NYC?  How has the voices of the Latino community (which has had a historical presence in New York) experience an erasure from the larger narrative of Gentrification related issues? (i.e. Housing, employment, education etc..)

Thesis and Intro

People of Color have been the targets of urban displacements for quite sometime now.  In particular the latino community and specifically the Puerto Rican community has experienced an exodus from New York, and yet their narratives are not being archived or being reported amongst the urban displacement that is currently occurring. On-going issues such as housing, employment, and access to government programs all lead to displacements. With the influx of new affluent residents oftentimes create business catering to their own and ostracize individuals who are born and raised in the neighborhoods currently being heavily developed. In particular this paper will explore North Williamsburg and Harlem and their rapid rezoning and restructuring which never include the voices of minority groups.

Main Points

1 – An exploration of  policies that affect Latino and NuYoRican residents. I will explore rezoning, redistricting and data that supports the numbers that indicate a mass exodus from NYC.

2- Exploring Retail and Boutiquing occurring in rapidly gentrifying neighborhoods. Specifically taking a look at North Williamsburg and Harlem.

3 – An incorporation of the Oral Histories relevant to my research topic and focused a more person tone. Earlier research will focus specifically on policy and data. However, as the paper ends I would like to incorporate a more person approach and let the reader know it’s not a statistic, but rather human beings that are continually affected.




1MLA (Modern Language Assoc.)  Works Cited

Lees, L. “A Reappraisal of Gentrification: Towards a ‘Geography of Gentrification’.” Progress in Human Geography, vol. 24, no. 3, Sept. 2000, pp. 389-408. EBSCOhost,

2 – Davila, Arlene M. Barrio Dreams: Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and the Neoliberal City. Univ. of California Press.

3 – DW Gibson The Edge Becomes The Center An oral History of Gentrification in the Twenty-First Century.

Gentrification: The on-going Displacement and issues affecting the Latino Community NYC


1- I believe the sources that I have offer a plethora of information that I can adequately incorporate into my argument. I initially wanted my paper to focus on Black/latino communities in my paper. However, with the research I have gathered it’s focusing more towards the latino community and their displacement in Harlem and North Williamsburg. I need feel like I can hone in my broad topic even further and I believe as time progress I will be able to further specify my research topic.

2 – My next step is to look for more valuable sources that are the authors of the books I am using have used for their research. Maybe I will be able to find further information by tracking the process of their works cited. I will start to write a first Draft to see where I am stuck and see where I need to further develop my research paper.

Archival Response

Ryann Block

Eng 103.0905

Professor Kitana A.

Archival Assignment



During our visit at the Archive Room, we discussed two documents one called The Council Report Of Legal Service Division & the January 2nd Coalition for the Defense of Haitian Refugees. These documents were primary documents part of a special collection in a certain time era. Whereas Books were secondary sources. The first Legal document spoke about the Haitian Refugees being held in the detention center. Waiting their trial dates and citizenships.  There were about 2200 Haitian refugees that have been imprisoned because they entered United State illegally, they would have to wait years to legally emigrate. These Haitians were treated like criminals for example “ Fifty-three of these refugees are presently being detained at the Brooklyn Navy Yard” Not in prison. “Due process rights than are guaranteed every other federal prisoner”. These Haitian refugees wasn’t treated with respect. It’s sad that they had to suffer and fear for their life.

The second Primary document January 2nd Coalition for the Defense of Haitian Refugees is about 3,000 Haitians refugees being imprisoned in the United States and Puerto Rico. The Coalition wanted all americans to understand no matter how much or how the government may support the corrupt government of Jean-Claude Duvalier in Haiti, they’re still responsible for the Haitian Refugees. This document spoke about policies. Policies in detaining Haitians. Another interesting thing that was important there was a man name Papa Doc who killed these Haitians because of their skin complexion. They were trying to stop the deportation of Haitians to travel to Belize. They would use ships to ship them out this took place in Brooklyn, NY  on Nostrand ave & Eastern Parkway.

To conclude, both legal documents stated information about the Haitian Refugees. How they were deprived and treated like criminals, no one wants to live in a world where you have to fear for your life. This was how the Haitians were living. Each has families and the government didn’t take a second thought to think about their families. The government just felt like they deserved to be treated as such, to be imprisoned, to be killed because of their complexion. This was in the year of 1892. The government must do a better job. We all have rights and should be taken into consideration.

Archival Response – Alejandro Canelas

Alejandro Canelas

English 103.0905

Professor Kitana Ananda

October 30 2017

                                      Archival Response

During the Laguardia Wagner Archives visit I learned about resources available to Laguardia Students. During the visit we analyzed a primary source which was the document Res. No.1873, which was submitted by: Ira S. Pers and was a proposal to sponsor 2200 Haitian refugees during the 1980’s. This document was proposed during the Papa Doc administration of Haiti, where the Haitian Dictator Duvalier massacred a large number of Haitians on the basis of skin color. The mass murder of Haitians caused many refugees to seek political asylum in various parts of the United States. However, this document in particular emphasized the detainees being held at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. This surprised many of us due to that fact that the area used to be a dilapidated area, and now it has experienced an urban renewal and an influx of new wealthier residents.  

The main source of contention in this document was the fact that these Haitian refugees were in a state of limbo for long periods of time. They also were denied and/or received fewer due process rights. These rights are meant to be distributed to everyone on United States soil regardless of legal status. However, the reality at hand was that many were often times denied these rights and this caused many to be held at these prison like accommodations. On paper the areas where they were being held were called “detention centers”, but they operated in a systematic prison-like fashion.  Furthermore, the document goes on to explain how the then federal Judge Robert Carter issued the release of about 53% of the refugees, but due to similar cases occurring in Florida they were still being held.

The fact that this document was issued during the 1980’s Reagan Administration which was a Republican Administration highlights the fact that this issue was being ignored and swept under the rug. This also calls into question the treatment of refugees and immigrants who happen to be POC and their on-going treatment and denial of status in the United States. This document although published in the 1980’s is still relevant today due to the fact that detention centers are still an issue and the negative treatment towards people coming from non-eurocentric backgrounds.

This document proposed by The Council report of Legal Services Division attempted to rectify the Haitian refugee crisis by showcasing that these individuals will have sufficient sponsorship and will accept responsibility for them. What makes this document rather convoluted is that how does one prove and determine if someone is a refugee or an illegal. The lines are blurred and often times overlap, and it is unfortunate that such a desperate situation requires tedious paperwork in order to prove something that is blatantly obvious. One questions the fact if they were coming from Europe if they would receive the same treatment. Personally, I believe if they were coming from a European Country that they would have received a much faster response and rectification of the situation. It is quite unfortunate that these issues are still relevant today and are still being conducted in much of that same antiquated fashion and still much of the same stigma applies today.

Educational Narrative

My earliest memories of school are not being able to speak, read, or write english. “Adversity introduces a man to himself.” said the great scientist Albert Einstein. I learned that I am capable of pushing myself and accomplishing anything I need or want thanks to my academic endeavors and also thanks to martial arts. I have accomplished a first degree black belt in tae kwon do and have reached other ranks in other martial arts. Another great quote is from the bible, “God will never put me through what he cannot help me through.” I believe every challenge we face is doable because I believe in a higher power that created this universe (or maybe the universe itself). So, although we as humans have many obstacles and adverse situations to overcome we Thank God that we are here, alive and experiencing. I was eventually placed in a bilingual class. Later on I was able to develop both english and spanish. In junior high school I even received a 90 in the Italian regents, so a weakness became a strength. As a child I could barely speak two languages and by High School I basically spoke three. Two teachers stand out in my mind (Ms.Teora an Italian teacher in junior high school and Mr. Azzara my guitar teacher in high school). These two teachers touched my heart with their passion for the subjects in which they were teaching, their humor, and their down-to-earthness.


I remember feeling lost in the beginning of my childhood education career. I didn’t have any friends nor was I able to make any. I was scared and felt strange. A feeling that didn’t necessarily fleet but that I can now thrive on. I associate my first experiences with racism to school. And the images of many people of all colors come to mind in a bland edifice. I can also remember the smell of school lunch. I didn’t really start making friends until the fourth grade and eventually I pushed myself to become an honors student in fifth grade. I remember a certain peer who became my friend and is now getting his doctor’s degree in california in ethnic studies. I also remember another friend I made in junior high school who was a positive influence to me. I consider my martial arts training another form of education. I educated myself to handle negativity from other peers by the outlet of expressing anger through martial arts. I learned about eating healthy and exercising and this helped my grades back then. Although, I must say I think i need to re-learn a lot of these habits. I haven’t been in school for a while, so I am acclimating myself to college. I also haven’t been to a gym or martial arts training for a while so i don’t quite feel the same as I did when I was doing well in school.


School has always been an inspiring yet challenging place for me. Although I’m not always enthusiastic about going to class or completing an assignment but i know that i cannot give up on my academic studies because in the long run i believe i will lead a happier and more fulfilling life. The teachers who have taught me the most in life so far though are my parents. The most important thing I have learned from them is that being a realist is also as important as being an idealist because first the dreams are born in your mind and then action manifests dreams into reality. I want to become the best version of me possible.

Analysis Essay

Aziza Benjamin

ENG 103

Analysis Essay

In an address to The Council of the City of New York, January 2nd Coalition for the Defense of Haitian Refugees. This statement addresses many different important things that are happening in America and New York in general too. The first is asking for the 3,000 Haitian refugees to be released from the detention centers. They are being held without proper treatment of their rights to trial etc. Also, it talks about the Haitians who are being deported back to the oppression they are trying to escape. The statement talks about undocumented workers, who will be at the mercy of their employers; their rights will be violated. This is important because it goes back to the Haitians who cannot prove that they are being treated badly by the Haitian government and their workers. The most important point in this statement is about the Reagan administration to stop sending money to Duvalier. The money that they are sending to him is the number one reason why many Haitians are leaving Haiti. If the U.S. government stop supporting Duvalier, life may not be as difficult as it is. The statement addresses a few more things, but it did not go into many details, one of their concerns was the U.S. involvement in Central America and the Caribbean.

In another address to The Council of the City of New York, The Council Report of Legal Services Division, Committee on General Welfare. The council members talk about how the Haitians arrived in the U.S. since last year, and they are being held in 11 detention centers around the country. These Haitians are being held prisoners because they entered the U.S. illegally instead of the legal way. According to the statement, it would have taken a few years to happen; which would have resulted in many of their deaths. 53 of the prisoners are being held at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, federal District Court Judge Robert Carter has order these refugees be release; they are not being released because of the cases in Florida pending. The federal law would allow the attorney general Smith to release these people on parole with sponsors. Many people has come forward to be sponsors for the Haitian refugees. The council members are hoping that The Council of the City of New York will call on the attorney general.

The way that these two are related are both articles are about Haitians refugees being imprisoned without being able to exercise any of their rights or due process. These refugees are not being treated fairly by the U.S. government. There has been an order for the Haitian refugees in New York to be released from the detention center, but they are still imprisoned because of the cases that are still pending in Florida. It is not fair to these people, who has left a country where they are being ill treated to come to another country to be treated in a similar matter. Also the reason that they did not wait to come to this country legally is because the process takes years.

Short essay

The two articles that I have chosen were the ones provided to us when we visited the archive recently. The articles are REPORTS OF LEGAL SERVICES DIVISION and JANUARY 2ND COALITION FOR THE DEFENSE OF HAITIAN REFUGEES. These two articles discuss the Challenges that the Haitian refugees had to go through, back in the year of 1981. Both articles mention that these refugees were imprisoned, and we’re not given they’re right to a due process. For those who do not know what to process is it is ” fair treatment through the normal judicial system, it is a citizen’s entitlement”. The only reason this happened is because these refugees are not American citizens there for the government did not think that they could go to trial, many people argue that. In the both articles they talked about how there are 11 detention camps throughout the use and more than 2,000 people or dispersed into these camps. The reason for the refugees Coming to America was because of the horrible treatment they were given by their leader. They did not want to wait years to get accepted into the use that’s why they came here illegally. A judge named Robert Carter released 53 Haitian refugees from the Brooklyn Navy Yard to allow them to have a fair trial. After this many other refugees were released from camps to gain a fair trial as well. As time went on these individuals were giving sponsors enabling them to have trials and become citizens of the U.S. It’s unfortunate that these refugees were seeking happiness and freedom here in America but was given the complete opposite. Being put into camps like if they were animals, being treated inhumanely, it was bad enough that they have to deal with the stuff back in their country. Many American citizens did not see this an appositive mindset like the president or anyone else that supported these camps and imprisonment. The citizens who did not support this demonstrated it in rallies and protests, in one of the articles it provided a flyer that people made to show where they were going to rally and March to defend the Haitian people. Not only were these people being placed in camps and even sent to their country again they were some refugees who even sent to Belize, a country they have never been. It was like the US was just throwing out trash and putting it somewhere that they don’t care for. It was a sad time during this time many Haitians survived it and could become citizens of this great land but many more were in as fortunate. As I read this article I also think back to when Obama was President and he allowed all the Syrians to come into this country. Many people were against it scared of terrorism and other things but others we’re happy because it was good to see a president with such positive initiative to let these refugees into the country without a problem, America is built on freedom, rights, and the pursuit of happiness and I believe that any legal immigrant that comes to this country is entitled to all three of those categories.

Link to articles:

Paper Sketch/ Storyborad

Marcia Buri
Professor: Kitana Ananda

The fight for the old America
Has a big diverse country like the United States always been this accepting country towards non Americans like it is today.? Around the 1920’s the United States had a major issue going on in society and this was racism. America was not always this calmed like it is in the 2017, non american people suffered from racism by whites specially by one group well known nowadays called “ The Klu Klux Klan”. Which was a group that by racist actions tried hard to keep america stay the america they have always known claiming it was a way to protect “the First Nations people “.
After the U.S created a law against immigration, this led to the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan, which had tons of ways and efforts to “combat” immigration and make america the old america, this group had the support of the congress to continue with their ideas of restoring nordicism. ( the klan’s fight for Americanism, 1926 by Hiram Evans)
Some of the major concerns of the klu klux klan that pushed them to rebirth was that they feared influence of the immigrants and cultural erosion and they believed they had to protect the first Nations people also explained by (Hiram Evans in “the Klan’s fight for Americanism”)
African Americans gained their freedom and some started registering to vote and as more colored people started to hold offices in the south, this Infuriated the klan more and more (America; a narrative history by Shi and Tindall)
I think I was able to develop an interesting and clear thesis that is and will be well supported by the sources I have gathered so far. My step next will be too look for at least one more source that will help me prove my point and make a clear idea for my thesis.

Archive Response

Christopher Alfaro
Professor Kitana Ananda
October 27, 2017

Archives Response:

The first document is a report from the City Council of New York that was written not so long ago, in the year 1982. This was written by the Legal Service Division and it discussed the situations these Haitians immigrants were facing at the time. The document discusses the immigration and naturalization of the Haitians that fled their countries due to extreme situations to the United States seeking a safe haven but instead were held in detention centers.

An approximate amount of 2,200 Haitians had left their countries due to Political repression and other extreme cases, and instead of being welcomed they were imprisoned in 11 centers across the country. They were locked up but were not being treated as criminals, meaning they didn’t have the rights they should have as a “felon” (Right to a lawyer, Innocent until proven guilty, etc.). This had occurred to a group of 53 people that was detained at the Brooklyn Navy yard.

The second document is also from the year 1982, and it explained to the American public what exactly was going on behind the scenes and what the U.S Government and the Reagan Administration was doing with the Haitian Refugees and also with the Duvalier Regime. This text puts a blame on the U.S government for what was going on in Haiti and why its people left. Also, a very important fact mentioned was that in just a bit more than a year there were 3000 Haitian refugees in both the U.S and Puerto Rico.

The main focus in both these documents are the Haitian people and their situation. They try to inform and generate a solution to help these people that are kept prisoners and in risk of deportation. I believe that the second document had an intention of aid but also of exposure and it wanted to open the American public’s eyes to cause a reaction to the events. Also, this
association in the second document demands solutions and proper treatment to the people of Haiti. This is an act that may start a movement against the U.S government.

The association demands things such as the release from camps and political asylums for all Haitian refugees, an unconditional amnesty for all undocumented workers, and I believe most importantly they demanded that the U.S stopped supporting the Duvalier dictatorship with economic and military aid. In these documents I learned about a new piece of history. I learned about the situation people went through in Haiti because of their leader, and the treatment they were given when searching for a better life. It does not surprise me that even back then, things like this occur and sometimes the people that are supposed to be defending and standing up for us do so many unconstitutional and corrupt things. Deporting these people is just as good as killing them. Sending them off to a far away and unknown place kills every last bit of hope they had of starting a new life.

Document Analysis Essay

In the first source titled The Council of the City of New York, council members Williams, Codd, Foster, Friedlander, Gerena-Valentine, Messinger, Olmedo, and Wallace spoke about the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Department of State and how they should release all Haitian refugees that were being held in many different facilities throughout America. In this document is relaid to readers that there were 22,000 Haitian refugees that were held in prison in eleven different centers all across American soil. They had entered the United States illegally and were not deemed as citizens, for they had left rather quickly due to political repression and economic deprivation. Out of these a mere fifty-three were held in Brooklyn and were not given equal rights by the establishment, these prisoners were supposed to be released, but they were not because of other cases that came into the mix.

In the second document, January 2nd Coalition for the Defense of Haitian Refugees, it told readers that between the United States and Puerto Rico combined there were 3,000 Haitian refugees in just a year and a half. From July of 1981, the Reagan administration had captured and imprisoned Haitians that were fleeing from terrible economic struggles and repression, as mentioned in the first document. The American public felt that if the United States government continued to take the side and support repressive and corrupt governments then it is also responsible for the amount of Haitians coming to America to get away from their bad government. The January 2nd Coalition wanted to emphasize putting the Haitian refugees in concentration camps before being deported in a case he called “immigration emergency.”

These documents are similar because they both clearly state that the United States practically held the Haitian refugees as prisoners when they only came here to get out of a type of imprisonment within their own corrupt government.Both documents relay how the prisoners, or at least some of them, were supposed to be released but were not and that the American public did not agree with what the government was doing in relation to the Haitian refugees. A difference that I found to be particularly interesting was the Puerto Rico was also involved in the imprisonment of the Haitian refugees. The article that was in regard to the January 2nd Coalition stated that the Puerto Ricans and the Americans had a sum of 3,000 Haitian refugees in concentration camps alone. That is a large number, but nothing compared to what America had in detention centers all across the country.

Unfortunately, I did not learn anything about my research topic in particular, but I did find these two documents to be interesting all the same. Though not interesting enough to change my research paper topic, I still enjoyed learning about a part of the United States that I had not heard of before, though it is upsetting that after we were so against the Jews being put into camps such as the ones we were creating, that we would do the exact same besides from killing them, unless we did that too which I would not be surprised about.